Gas Well Deliquification — Solutions to Gas Well Liquid Loading Problems


Author: James Lea, Henry Nickens, Mike Wells
Format: Hardcover
Pages: 314
ISBN: 0750677244
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Year Published: 2003

Availability: Usually ships in 7 to 10 days. $80.00

No other book on the market offers such a turnkey solution to the problem of liquid interference in gas wells. Gas Well Deliquification contains not only descriptions of the various methods of de-watering gas wells, but also compares the various methods with a view toward explaining the suitability of each under particular circumstances. The material is presented as practical information that can be immediately applied, rather than a theoretical treatment. And, includes useful historical methods, but focuses on the latest techniques for de-watering gas wells.

* Only book on market to offer a turnkey solution to the problem of liquid interference in gas wells
* Contains descriptions of the various methods of de-watering gas wells, as well as comparing the various methods with a view to explaining the suitability of each under particular circumstances
* Introduces material as practical information that can be immediately applied, rather than a theoretical treatment


* Chapter 1: Introduction
o Multiphase Flow In A Gas Well
o What Is Liquid Loading?
o Problems Caused By Liquid Loading
o De-Liquefying Techniques Presented
o Source Of Liquids In A Producing Gas Well
o Water coning
o Aquifer water
o Water produced from another zone
o Free formation water
o Water of condensation
o Hydrocarbon condensates
* Chapter 2: Recognize Symptoms of Liquid Loading in Gas Wells
o Presence of Orifice Pressure Spikes
o Decline Curve Analysis
o Drop In Tubing Pressure with Rise in Casing Pressure
o Pressure Survey Showing Liquid Level
o Well Performance Monitoring
o Annulus Heading
o Heading cycle without packer
o Heading cycle with controller
o Liquid Production Ceases
* Chapter 3: Critical Velocity
o Critical Flow Concepts
o Turner droplet model
o Critical rate
o Critical tubing diameter
o Critical rate for low pressure wells-Coleman model
o Critical flow nomographs
o Critical velocity at depth
o Critical velocity in horizontal well flow
* Chapter 4: Systems Nodal Analysis
o Tubing Performance Curve
o Reservoir Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
o Gas well backpressure equation
o Future IPR curve with backpressure equation
o Intersections of the Tubing Curve and the Deliverability Curve
o Tubing Stability and Flowpoint
o Tight Gas Reservoirs
o Nodal Example-Tubing Size
o Nodal Example-Surface Pressure Effects: Use Compression to Lower Surface Pressure
o Summary Nodal Example of Developing IPR from Test Data with Tubing Performance
* Chapter 5: Sizing Tubing
o Advantages/Disadvantages of Smaller Tubing
o Concepts Required To Size Smaller Tubing
o Critical rate at surface conditions
o Critical rate at bottomhole conditions
o Summary of tubing design concepts
o Sizing Tubing without IPR Information
o Field Examples #1-Results Of Tubing Chang-Out
o Field Examples #2-Results of Tubing Change-Out
o Pre/Post Evaluation
o Where to Set the Tubing
o Hanging off Smaller Tubing from the Current Tubing
* Chapter 6: Compression
o Nodal Example
o Compression with a Tight Gas Reservoir
o Compression with Plunger Lift Systems
o Compression with Beam Pumping Wells
o Compression with ESP Systems
o Types of Compressors
o Rotary lobe compressor
o Re-injected rotary lobe compressor
o Rotary vane compressor
o Liquid ring compressor
o Liquid injected rotary screw compressor
o Reciprocating compressor
o Sliding vane compressor
o Gas Jet Compressors or Eductors
* Chapter 7: Plunger Lift
o Plunger
o Plunger Cycle
o Plunger Lift Feasibility
o GLR rule of thumb
o Feasibility charts
o Maximum liquid production with plunger lift
o Plunger lift with a packer installed
o Plunger lift Nodal Analysis
o Plunger-Lift System Line-Out Procedure
o Considerations before Kickoff
o Load factor
o Kickoff
o Cycle adjustment
o Stabilization period
o Optimization
o Oil well optimization
o Gas well optimization
o Optimizing cycle time
o Monitoring
o Problem Analysis
o Motor Valve
o Valve leaks
o Valve won’t open
o Valve won’t close
o Controller
o Electronics
o Pneumatics
o Arrival Transducer
o Wellhead leaks
o Catcher not functioning
o Pressure sensor not functioning
o Control gas to stay on measurement chart
o Plunger operations
o Plunger won’t fall
o Plunger won’t surface
o Plunger travel too slow
o Plunger travel too fast
o Head gas bleeding off too slowly
o Head gas creating surface equipment problems
o Well loads up frequently
o New Plunger Concept
o Casing Plunger for Weak Wells
o Plunger with Side String: Low Pressure Well Production
* Chapter 8: Use Of Foam to De-Liquefy Gas Wells
o Liquid Removal Process
o Surface de-foaming
o Foam Selection
o Foam Basics
o Foam generation
o Foam stability
o Surfactant types
o Nonionic surfactants
o Anionic surfactants
o Cationic surfactants
o Foaming agents for hydrocarbons
o Foaming with brine/condensate mixtures
o Effect of condensate (aromatic) fraction
o Effect of brine
o Operating Considerations
o Surfactant selection
o Bureau of Mines testing procedures
o Unloading techniques and equipment
o Batch treatment
o Continuous treatment
o Determining surface surfactant concentration
o Chemical treatment problems
o Emulsion problems
o Foam carryover
* Chapter 9: Hydraulic Pumps
o Advantages and Disadvantages
o The 1-1/4″ Jet Pump
o System Comparative Costs
o Hydraulic Pump Case Histories
* Chapter 10: Use of Beam Pumps to De-Liquefy Gas Wells
o Basics of Beam Pump Operation
o Pump-Off Control
o Design rate with pump-off control
o Use of surface indications for pump-off control
o Gas Separation to Keep Gas Out Of the Pump
o Set pump below the perforations
o Poor-boy, or limited-entry gas separator
o Collar sized separator
o Handling Gas through the Pump
o Compression ratio
o Variable slippage pump to prevent gas lock
o Pump compression with dual chambers
o Pumps that open the traveling valve mechanically
o Pumps to take the fluid load off the traveling valve
o Inject Liquids below a Packer
o Other Problems Indicated By the Shape of the Pump Card
* Chapter 11: Gas Lift
o Continuous Gas Lift
o Basic principles of continuous gas lift
o Intermittent Gas Lift
o Gas Lift System Components
o Continuous Gas Lift Design Objectives
o Gas Lift Valves
o Orifice valves
o Injection pressure operated (IPO) valves
o Production pressure operated (PPO) valves
o Gas Lift Completions
o Conventional gas lift design
o Chamber lift installations
o Horizontal well installations
o Coiled tubing gas lift completions
o A gas pump concept
o Gas circulation
o Gas Lift without Gas Lift Valves
* Chapter 12: Electrical Submersible Pumps
o The ESP System
o What Is A «Gassy» Well?
o Completions and Separators
o Injection of Produced Water
* Chapter 13: Progressive Cavity Pumps
o PCP System Selection
o Rotor
o Stator
o Surface drive
o Selection and Operational Factors
o Important factors for sizing the system
o Steps to size the PCP
o Ancillary Equipment
o Flow detection devices
o Flow meters
o Differential pressure switches
o Thermal dispersion devices
o Rod guides
o Gas separators
o Tubing anchor/catcher
o Trouble Shooting PCP Systems
* Chapter 14: Other Methods to Attack Liquid Loading Problems
o Thermal Methods for Water of Condensation
o Thermal lift
o Thermal liner
o Thermal Coating
o With Packer Installed, Draw a Vacuum on the Annulus
o Cycling
o Tubing/Annulus Switching Control
o Tubing Flow Control
o Tubing Collar Inserts for Producing Below Critical Velocity
* Appendix A: Development of Critical Velocity Equations
o Equation Simplification
o Turner Equations
o Coleman et al. Equations
* Appendix B: Development of Plunger Lift Equations
o Minimum Casing Pressure
o Maximum Casing Pressure
* Appendix C: Gas Fundamentals
o Phase Diagram
o Gas Apparent Molecular Weight and Specific Gravity
o Gas Law
o Z Factor
o Gas Formation Volume Factor
o Pressure Increase in Static Column of Gas
o Calculate the Pressure Drop in Flowing Dry Gas Well: Cullender and Smith Method
o Pressure Drop in a Gas Well Producing Liquids
o Gas Well Deliverability Expressions
o Backpressure equation
o Darcy equation

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